Interleukin-6 and ACTH act synergistically to stimulate the release of corticosterone from adrenal gland cells

Abstract We investigated whether interleukin-6 (IL-6) could cause the release of corticosterone by a direct interaction with the adrenal gland. Primary cultures of rat adrenal glands were obtained by dispersion with collagenase and incubated for 24 h with different doses of IL-6. Levels of corticosterone were measured by competitive protein binding assay. A significant (P less than 0.025) dose-dependent increase … Read More

The microbiome and the hallmarks of cancer

Introduction The “Hallmarks of Cancer, ”proposed by Hanahan and Weinburg in 2001 and updated in 2011, logically define how a normal cell progresses to a tumorigenic state within a complex neoplastic environment.

Intervention strategies for cesarean section-induced alterations in the microbiota-gut-brain axis

Abstract Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. … Read More

Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain … Read More

The gut microbiome: the role of a virtual organ in the endocrinology of the host

Abstract The human microbiome contains a vast array of microbes and genes that show greater complexity than the host’s own karyome; the functions of many of these microbes are beneficial and show co-evolution with the host, while others are detrimental. The microbiota that colonises the gut is now being considered as a virtual organ or emergent system, with properties that … Read More

Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system

Abstract The new field of microbiome research studies the microbes within multicellular hosts and the many effects of these microbes on the host’s health and well-being. We now know that microbes influence metabolism, immunity and even behavior. Essential questions, which are just starting to be answered, are what are the mechanisms by which these bacteria affect specific host characteristics. One … Read More

Gut Microbiota: Role in Pathogen Colonization, Immune Responses and Inflammatory Disease

The intestinal tract of mammals is colonized by a large number of microorganisms including trillions of bacteria that are referred to collectively as the gut microbiota. These indigenous microorganisms have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship. In addition to metabolic benefits, symbiotic bacteria provide the host with several functions that promote immune homeostasis, immune responses and protection against … Read More

The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease

Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gut. Although the precise cause of IBD remains unknown, the most accepted hypothesis of IBD pathogenesis to date is that an aberrant immune response against the gut microbiota is triggered by environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host. The advancement of next generation sequencing technology has … Read More

Pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders: Revisiting gastrointestinal involvement and immune imbalance

AbstractAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a group of neurodevelopmental abnormalities that begin in early childhood and are characterized by impairment of social communication and behavioral problems includingrestricted interests and repetitive behaviors.  Several genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ASD, most of them are involved in neuronal synaptogenesis. A number of environmental factors and associated conditions such as gastrointestinal … Read More

Contributions of intestinal epithelial barriers to health and disease

AbstractA core function of epithelia is to form barriers that separate tissue compartments within complex organisms. These barriers also separate the internal milieu from the external environment and are, therefore, an essential component of host defense. However, in many cases, a perfect barrier would be improbable with life itself. Examples include the air spaces within the lungs, the renal tubules, … Read More