Exposure to a social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation

Abstract The bodies of most animals are populated by highly complex and genetically diverse communities of microorganisms. The majority of these microbes reside within the intestines in largely stable but dynamically interactive climax communities that positively interact with their host. Studies from this laboratory have shown that stressor exposure impacts the stability of the microbiota and leads to bacterial translocation. The biological importance of these … Read More

Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders

Abstract The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis … Read More

The Second Brain: Is the Gut Microbiota a Link Between Obesity and Central Nervous System Disorders

Abstract The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional integrated system composed by immune, endocrine, and neuronal components by which the gap between the gut microbiota and the brain is significantly impacted. An increasing number of different gut microbial species are now postulated to regulate brain function in health and disease. The westernized diet is hypothesized to be the cause of the … Read More

Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain … Read More

Obesity, diabetes, and gut microbiota: the hygiene hypothesis expanded?

Abstract The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes in the host through several mechanisms: increased energy harvest from the diet, altered fatty acid metabolism and composition in … Read More

Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system

Abstract The new field of microbiome research studies the microbes within multicellular hosts and the many effects of these microbes on the host’s health and well-being. We now know that microbes influence metabolism, immunity and even behavior. Essential questions, which are just starting to be answered, are what are the mechanisms by which these bacteria affect specific host characteristics. One … Read More

Gut Microbiota: Role in Pathogen Colonization, Immune Responses and Inflammatory Disease

The intestinal tract of mammals is colonized by a large number of microorganisms including trillions of bacteria that are referred to collectively as the gut microbiota. These indigenous microorganisms have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship. In addition to metabolic benefits, symbiotic bacteria provide the host with several functions that promote immune homeostasis, immune responses and protection against … Read More

Role of intestinal microbiota and metabolites on gut homeostasis and human diseases

Abstract Background: A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinalmicrobiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of hostinnate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health.Methods: This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbialmetabolites, as well as the involvement of … Read More

The Roles of Inflammation, Nutrient Availability and the Commensal Microbiota in Enteric Pathogen Infection

ABSTRACT The healthy human intestine is colonized by as many as 1014 bacteria belonging to more than 500 different species forming a microbial ecosystem of unsurpassed diversity, termed the microbiota. The microbiota’s various bacterial members engage in a physiological network of cooperation andcompetition within several layers of complexity. Within the last 10 years, technological progress in the field of next-generation … Read More

Autoimmune host–microbiota interactions at barrier sites and beyond

The microbiota is considered to be an important factor influencing the pathogenesis of autoimmunity at both barrier sites and internal organs. Impinging on innate and adaptive immunity, commensals exert protective or detrimental effects on various autoimmune animal models. Human microbiome studies of autoimmunity remain largely descriptive, but suggest a role for dysbiosis in autoimmune disease. Humanized gnotobioticapproaches have advanced our … Read More