Gut Microbiota: Role in Pathogen Colonization, Immune Responses and Inflammatory Disease

The intestinal tract of mammals is colonized by a large number of microorganisms including trillions of bacteria that are referred to collectively as the gut microbiota. These indigenous microorganisms have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship. In addition to metabolic benefits, symbiotic bacteria provide the host with several functions that promote immune homeostasis, immune responses and protection against … Read More

Nonceliac gluten and wheat sensitivity

During the past decade there has been an impressive increase in popularity of the gluten-free diet (GFD)—now the most trendy alimentary habit in the United States and other countries. According to recent surveys, as many as100 million Americans will consume gluten-free products within a year. Operating under the concept that the GFD benefits only individuals with celiac disease, health care … Read More

Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Thyroid Autoimmunity

The autoimmune/infammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), presented by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin in 2011, is an entity that incorporates diverse autoimmune conditions induced by the exposure to various adjuvants. Adjuvants are agents that entail the capability to induce immune reactions. Adjuvants are found in many vaccines and used mainly to increase the response to vaccination in the general population.  Silicone … Read More

Zonulin and Its Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function: The Biological Door to Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Cancer

The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract have traditionally been perceived to be limited to the digestion and absorption of nutrients and to electrolytes and water homeostasis. A more attentive analysis of the anatomic and functional arrangement of the gastrointestinal tract, however, suggests that another extremely important function of this organis its ability to regulate the trafficking of macromolecules between … Read More

Lipopolysaccharide injection induces relapses of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in nontransgenic mice via bystander activation of autoreactive CD4+ cells

Abstract Infections sometimes associate with exacerbations of autoimmune diseases through pathways that are poorly understood. Ag-specific mechanisms such as cross-reactivity between a microbial Ag and a self-Ag have received no direct support. In this study, we show that injection of LPS induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in TCR-transgenic mice and relapse of encephalomyelitis in normal mice. This form of treatment induces … Read More

Induction of autoimmunity in good and poor responder mice with mouse thyroglobulin and lipopolysaccharide (Published in 1977)

The administration of soluble mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) in conjunction with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to the termination of natural tolerance to MTg in mice. The extent of autoimmunity correlated with responsiveness to MTg, previously shown by the injection of MTg in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to be dependent upon the H-2 haplotype. In good responder B10.BR (H-2 k) mice given … Read More

Markers of intestinal permeability are already altered in early stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Studies in children

Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have shown that patients with manifest non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), e.g. steatosis grade 3 or steatohepatitis with or without beginning fibrosis frequently show altered fecal microbiota composition and elevated bacterial endotoxin levels. However, if these alterations are signs of a progressing disease or are already found in initial disease stages has not yet … Read More

Metabolic endotoxemia directly increases the proliferation of adipocyte precursors at the onset of metabolic diseases through a CD14-dependent mechanism

ABSTRACT Metabolic endotoxemia triggers inflammation, targets cells from the stroma-vascular fraction of adipose depots, and metabolic disease. To identify these cells we here infused mice with lipopolysaccharides and showed by FACS analyses and BrdU staining that the number of small subcutaneous adipocytes, preadipocytes and macrophages increased in wild type but not in CD14-knockout (KO) mice. This mechanism was direct since … Read More

Identification of gut microbiome signatures associated with longevity provides a promising modulation target for healthy aging

ABSTRACT The world population is aging, which poses a significant burden to the economy and health care system. As people age, so do their gut microbiomes. Age-related changes in gut microbiome have been reported, including decreased microbial diversity and increased Proteobacteria. Recently, we characterized the gut microbiome of a group of long-living (≥90 years old) Chinese people.Interestingly, the diversity of … Read More

Mucosal immune dysfunction in AIDS pathogenesis

Abstract The mucosal immune system plays a central role in both the transmission of HIV infection and the pathogenesis of AIDS. Most HIV infections are acquired through mucosal transmission, and quantitative and qualitative defects of mucosal immunity are consistently present in all stages of pathogenic HIV and SIV infections. A series of recent studies has emphasized the role of a … Read More