Intestinal Permeability and its Regulation by Zonulin: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

AbstractOne of the most important and overlooked function of the gastrointestinal tract is to provide a dynamic barrier to tightly control antigen trafficking both through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. Intercellular tight junctions (TJ) are the key structures regulating paracellular trafficking of macromolecules. While steady progress has been made in understandingTJ ultrastructure, relatively little is known about their pathophysiological regulation. … Read More

Metabolic endotoxemia directly increases the proliferation of adipocyte precursors at the onset of metabolic diseases through a CD14-dependent mechanism

ABSTRACT Metabolic endotoxemia triggers inflammation, targets cells from the stroma-vascular fraction of adipose depots, and metabolic disease. To identify these cells we here infused mice with lipopolysaccharides and showed by FACS analyses and BrdU staining that the number of small subcutaneous adipocytes, preadipocytes and macrophages increased in wild type but not in CD14-knockout (KO) mice. This mechanism was direct since … Read More

Identification of gut microbiome signatures associated with longevity provides a promising modulation target for healthy aging

ABSTRACT The world population is aging, which poses a significant burden to the economy and health care system. As people age, so do their gut microbiomes. Age-related changes in gut microbiome have been reported, including decreased microbial diversity and increased Proteobacteria. Recently, we characterized the gut microbiome of a group of long-living (≥90 years old) Chinese people.Interestingly, the diversity of … Read More

Mucosal immune dysfunction in AIDS pathogenesis

Abstract The mucosal immune system plays a central role in both the transmission of HIV infection and the pathogenesis of AIDS. Most HIV infections are acquired through mucosal transmission, and quantitative and qualitative defects of mucosal immunity are consistently present in all stages of pathogenic HIV and SIV infections. A series of recent studies has emphasized the role of a … Read More

Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota

The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells and has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disruption of this population has been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including examples such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that are highlighted in this review. A logical extension … Read More

Metabolic Endotoxemia Initiates Obesity and Insulin Resistance

Diabetes and obesity are two metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance and a low-grade inflammation.Seeking an inflammatory factor causative of the onset of insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes, we have identified bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a triggering factor.We found that normal endotoxemia increased or decreased during the fed or fasted state, respectively, on a nutritional basis and that a 4-week … Read More

Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers

AbstractAIMTo determine if 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementationcould reduce dietary endotoxemia.METHODSApparently healthy men and women (n = 75) werescreened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjectswhose serum endotoxin concentration increased by atleast 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandialwere considered “responders” and were randomized toreceive either placebo (rice flour) or a commercial sporebasedprobiotic supplement [Bacillus indicus (HU36),Bacillus subtilis (HU58), Bacillus coagulans, … Read More