Gut microbiota controls adipose tissue expansion, gut barrier and glucose metabolism: novel insights into molecular targets and interventions using prebiotics

Abstract Crosstalk between organs is crucial for controlling numerous homeostatic systems (e.g. energy balance, glucose metabolism and immunity). Several pathological conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are characterised by a loss of or excessive inter-organ communication that contributes to the development of disease. Recently, we and others have identified several mechanisms linking the gut microbiota with the development … Read More

Obesity, diabetes, and gut microbiota: the hygiene hypothesis expanded?

Abstract The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes in the host through several mechanisms: increased energy harvest from the diet, altered fatty acid metabolism and composition in … Read More

The gut microbiome: the role of a virtual organ in the endocrinology of the host

Abstract The human microbiome contains a vast array of microbes and genes that show greater complexity than the host’s own karyome; the functions of many of these microbes are beneficial and show co-evolution with the host, while others are detrimental. The microbiota that colonises the gut is now being considered as a virtual organ or emergent system, with properties that … Read More

Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system

Abstract The new field of microbiome research studies the microbes within multicellular hosts and the many effects of these microbes on the host’s health and well-being. We now know that microbes influence metabolism, immunity and even behavior. Essential questions, which are just starting to be answered, are what are the mechanisms by which these bacteria affect specific host characteristics. One … Read More

Microbiome impact on metabolism and function of sex, thyroid, growth and parathyroid hormones

Commensal bacteria and their genes associated with host are known as microbiome. In recent years, microbial influence on host endocrine system has been under detailed investigation. The role of microbiome in thepathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secretion of hormones regulating appetite is well described in world literature. In this article we discuss poorly … Read More

Gut Microbiota: Role in Pathogen Colonization, Immune Responses and Inflammatory Disease

The intestinal tract of mammals is colonized by a large number of microorganisms including trillions of bacteria that are referred to collectively as the gut microbiota. These indigenous microorganisms have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship. In addition to metabolic benefits, symbiotic bacteria provide the host with several functions that promote immune homeostasis, immune responses and protection against … Read More

Role of intestinal microbiota and metabolites on gut homeostasis and human diseases

Abstract Background: A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinalmicrobiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of hostinnate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health.Methods: This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbialmetabolites, as well as the involvement of … Read More

The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease

Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gut. Although the precise cause of IBD remains unknown, the most accepted hypothesis of IBD pathogenesis to date is that an aberrant immune response against the gut microbiota is triggered by environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host. The advancement of next generation sequencing technology has … Read More

Pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders: Revisiting gastrointestinal involvement and immune imbalance

AbstractAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a group of neurodevelopmental abnormalities that begin in early childhood and are characterized by impairment of social communication and behavioral problems includingrestricted interests and repetitive behaviors.  Several genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ASD, most of them are involved in neuronal synaptogenesis. A number of environmental factors and associated conditions such as gastrointestinal … Read More

Contributions of intestinal epithelial barriers to health and disease

AbstractA core function of epithelia is to form barriers that separate tissue compartments within complex organisms. These barriers also separate the internal milieu from the external environment and are, therefore, an essential component of host defense. However, in many cases, a perfect barrier would be improbable with life itself. Examples include the air spaces within the lungs, the renal tubules, … Read More