Exposure to a social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation

Abstract The bodies of most animals are populated by highly complex and genetically diverse communities of microorganisms. The majority of these microbes reside within the intestines in largely stable but dynamically interactive climax communities that positively interact with their host. Studies from this laboratory have shown that stressor exposure impacts the stability of the microbiota and leads to bacterial translocation. The biological importance of these … Read More

Association between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Reduction and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature

Abstract BACKGROUND: Laboratory data suggests a reduction of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) is confirmed both in fecal samples in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Numerous observational studies have suspected dysbiosis, an imbalance between protective and harmful bacteria to be relevant to the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, Pubmed, and others. were searched by 2 independent reviewers. Of … Read More

Next-Generation Beneficial Microbes: The Case of Akkermansia muciniphila

Abstract Metabolic disorders associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders are worldwide epidemic. Among the different environmental factors, the gut microbiota is now considered as a key player interfering with energy metabolism and host susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Among the next-generation beneficial microbes that have been identified, Akkermansia muciniphila is a promising candidate. Indeed, A. muciniphila is inversely associated with … Read More

Interleukin-6 and ACTH act synergistically to stimulate the release of corticosterone from adrenal gland cells

Abstract We investigated whether interleukin-6 (IL-6) could cause the release of corticosterone by a direct interaction with the adrenal gland. Primary cultures of rat adrenal glands were obtained by dispersion with collagenase and incubated for 24 h with different doses of IL-6. Levels of corticosterone were measured by competitive protein binding assay. A significant (P less than 0.025) dose-dependent increase … Read More

Diet, the gut microbiome, and epigenetics

Abstract Increasingly, the gut microbiome is implicated in the etiology of cancer, not only as an infectious agent but also by altering exposure to dietary compounds that influence disease risk. Whereas the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet, the gut microbiome can also modify dietary exposures in ways that are beneficial or detrimental to the … Read More

Metabolite and Microbiome Interplay in Cancer Immunotherapy

Abstract The role of the host microbiome has come to the forefront as a potential modulator of cancer metabolism and could be a future target for precision medicine. A recent study revealed that in colon cancer, bacteria form polysaccharide matrices called biofilms at a high frequency in the proximal colon. Comprehensive untargeted and stable isotope-assisted metabolomic analysis revealed that the … Read More

The microbiome and the hallmarks of cancer

Introduction The “Hallmarks of Cancer, ”proposed by Hanahan and Weinburg in 2001 and updated in 2011, logically define how a normal cell progresses to a tumorigenic state within a complex neoplastic environment.

The Human Microbiome and Cancer

Abstract Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their byproducts, including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, … Read More

Gut dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises … Read More

A bidirectional association between the gut microbiota and CNS disease in a biphasic murine model of multiple sclerosis

Abstract The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host … Read More