Metabolic endotoxemia triggers inflammation, targets cells from the stroma-vascular fraction of adipose depots, and metabolic disease. To identify these cells we here infused mice with lipopolysaccharides and showed by FACS analyses and BrdU staining that the number of small subcutaneous adipocytes, preadipocytes and macrophages increased in wild type but not in CD14-knockout (KO) mice. This mechanism was direct since inCD14KO mice grafted subcutaneously and simultaneously with fat pads from CD14KO and wild-type mice the concentration of cytokine mRNA was increased in the wild-type fat pad only. Conversely, the mRNA concentration of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and the number of large adipocytes was reduced. Eventually, a pretreatment with LPS enhanced HFD-induced metabolic diseases. Altogether, these results show that metabolic endotoxemia increases the proliferation of preadipocytes through a CD14-dependent mechanism directly, without recruiting CD14-positivecells from non-adipose depot origin. This mechanism could precede the onset of metabolic diseases.